Answered by Shaykh Abu Usamah
1. The Zakah-date of a person is the date upon which he/she became the owner of Nisab in the condition that they were baligh (mature). Since you do not know the exact date you will have to estimate it to the best of your ability.
2. The condition is that the Nisab amount must be reached at the beginning and end of the Zakah year even if it fluctuates to lower than this during the course of the year.
3. The fluctuation does not affect the Zakah date unless the assets reach zero.
4. This is calculated according to the country. Please ask your local ulama body.
5. If by loan you mean you are indebted then the liability of the debt will be subtracted from the total zakatable assets and zakah will be paid on the net value.
6. Zakah al-Fitr will have to be paid for the past years by determining the value of half a sa` (about 2 kg) of wheat on the day of `Id of those past years. For each year the relevant value must be given as Zakah al-Fitr.
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